Directions: For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a composition on the topic It Pays to Be Honest. You should write at least 100 words according to the outline given below in Chinese.
It Pays to Be Honest
Although honesty is believed to be a virtue, there are still dishonest people in our society. For example, some businessmen sell fake product to their consumers; some students cheat in the exams.
Dishonest people are short-sighted. Those who sell fake products may make money at first, but consumers won’t buy their products any more. As a result, they will lose their fortune or even be sent to prison. By contrast, honest people gain a lot.
Those who always tell truth or keep to their promise not only let others trust them but gain respect from other people as well. Such persons are sure to have a lot of good friends.
Because they are trustable and respectable, everyone is eager to make friends with them, besides, it is easier for a person with a good record to get a good job. Generally speaking, every employer wants his employees to be honest. So we can say that anyone who is honest will be paid back later. In a word, honesty wins trust, respect and honor. So it is important that we should be honest.
It being not only possible but even easy to predict which ten-year-old boys are at greatest risk of growing up to be persistent offenders, what are we doing with the information? Just about the last thing that we should do is to wait until their troubles have escalated in adolescence and then attack them with the provisions of the new Criminal Justice Bill.
If this bill becomes law, magistrates will have the power to impose residential care orders. More young people will be drawn into institutional life when all the evidence shows that this worsens rather than improves their prospects. The introduction of short sharp shocks in detention centers will simply give more young people a taste of something else they don’t need; the whole regime of detention centers is one of toughening delinquents, and if you want to train someone to be anti-establishment, “I can’t think of a better way to do it,” says the writer of this report.
The Cambridge Institute of Criminology comes up with five key factors that are likely to make for delinquency: a low income family a large family, parents deemed by social workers to be bad at raising children, parents who themselves have a criminal record, and low intelligence in the child. Not surprisingly, the factors tend to overlap. Of the 63 boys in the sample who had at least three of them when they were ten, half became juvenile delinquents—compared with only a fifth of the sample as a whole.
Three more factors make the prediction more accurate: being judged troublesome by teachers at the age of ten, having a father with at least two criminal convictions and having another member of the family with a criminal record. Of the 35 men who had at least two of these factors in their background 18 became persistent delinquents and 8 more were in trouble with the law.
Among those key factors, far and away the most important was having a parent with a criminal record, even if that had been acquired in the distant past, even though very few parents did other than condemn delinquent behavior in their children.
The role of the schools emerges as extremely important. The most reliable prediction of all on the futures of boys came from teachers’ ratings of how troublesome they were at the age of ten. If the information is there in the classroom there must be a response that brings more attention to those troublesome children: a search for things to give them credit for other than academic achievement, a refusal to allow them to go on playing truant, and a fostering of ambition and opportunity which should start early in their school careers.
1.According to the author, delinquency should be tackled ___.
B.during institutional treatment
D.when the problem becomes acute
2.The number of young offenders could be reduced by the way of ___.
A.new legal measures
B.better residential care
C.brief periods of harsh punishment
D.examination of their backgrounds
3.What is the outcome result of putting young offenders into detention centers?
A.They become more violent
B.They receive useful training
C.They become used to institutions
D.They turn against society
4.Ten-year-old children likely to become offenders are usually___.
A.spoilt children from small families.
B.bright children in a poor family.
C.dull children with many brothers and sisters.
D.children whose parents have acquired wealth dishonestly.
5.The writer concludes that potential offenders could be helped by ___.
A.spending more time at school
B.more encouragement at school
C.more activities outside school
D.stricter treatment from teachers
The word religion is derived from the Latin noun religio, which denotes both earnest observance of ritual obligations and an inward spirit of reverence. In modern usage, religion covers a wide spectrum of meaning that reflects the enormous variety of ways the term can be interpreted. At one extreme, many committed believers recognize only their own tradition as a religion, understanding expressions such as worship and prayer to refer exclusively to the practices of their tradition. Although many believers stop short of claiming an exclusive status for their tradition, they may nevertheless use vague or idealizing terms in defining religion for example, true love of God, or the path of enlightenment. At the other extreme, religion may be equated with ignorance, fanaticism, or wishful thinking.
By defining religion as a sacred engagement with what is taken to be a spiritual reality, it is possible to consider the importance of religion in human life without making claims about what it really is or ought to be. Religion is not an object with a single, fixed meaning, or even a zone with clear boundaries. It is an aspect of human experience that may intersect, incorporate, or transcend other aspects of life and society. Such a definition avoid the drawbacks of limiting the investigation of religion to Western or biblical categories such as monotheism (belief in one god only) or to church structure, which are not universal. For example, in tribal societies, religion unlike the Christian church usually is not a separate institution but pervades the whole of public and private life.
In Buddhism, gods are not as central as the idea of a Buddha. In many traditional cultures, the idea of a sacred cosmic order is the most prominent religious belief. Because of this variety, some scholars prefer to use a general term such as the sacred to designate the common foundation of religious life.
Religion in this understanding includes a complex of activities that cannot be reduced to any single aspect of human experience. It is a part of individual life but also of group dynamics. Religion includes patterns of behavior but also patterns of language and thought. It is sometimes a highly organized institution that sets itself apart from a culture, and it is sometimes an integral part of a culture. Religious experience may be expressed in visual symbols, dance and performance, elaborate philosophical systems, legendary and imaginative stories, formal ceremonies, and detailed rules of ethical conduct and law. Each of these elements assumes innumerable cultural forms. In some ways there are as many forms of religious expression as there are human cultural environments.
1.What is the passage mainly concerned about?
A.Religion has a variety of interpretation.
B.Religion is a reflection of ignorance.
C.Religion is not only confined to the Christian categories.
D.Religion includes all kinds of activities.
2.What does the word “observance” probably convey in Para. 1?
3.According to the passage what people generally consider religion to be?
C.Individual observance of tradition
D.A complex of activities
4.Which of the following is not true?
A.It is believed by some that religion should be what it ought to be.
B.“The path of enlightenment” is a definition that the author doesn’t agree to.
C.According to the author, the committed believers define religion improperly.
D.The author doesn’t speak in favor of the definition of “the sacred”.
5.Which of the following is religion according to the passage?
A.Performance of human beings.
B.Buddha, monotheism and some tribal tradition.
C.Practice separated from culture.
D.All the above.
You stare at waterfall for a minute or two, and then shift your gaze to its surroundings. What you now see appears to drift upward.
These optical illusions occur because the brain is constantly matching its model of reality to signals from the body’s sensors and interpreting what must be happening—that your brain must have moved, not the other; that downward motions is now normal, so a change from it must now be perceived as upward motion.
The sensors that make this magic are of two kinds. Each eye contains about 120 million rods, which provide somewhat blurry black and white vision. These are the windows of night vision; once adapted to the dark, they can detect a candle burning ten miles away.
Color vision in each eye comes from six to seven million structures called cones. Under ideal conditions, every cone can “see” the entire rainbow spectrum of visible colors, but one type of cone is most sensitive to red, another to green, a third to blue.
Rods and cones send their messages pulsing an average 20 to 25 times per second along the optic nerve. We see an image for a fraction of a second longer than it actually appears. In movies, reels of still photographs are projected onto screens at 24 frames per second, tricking our eyes into seeing a continuous moving picture.
Like apparent motion, color vision is also subject to unusual effects. When day gives way to night, twilight brings what the poet T.S. Eliot called “the violet hour.” A light levels fall, the rods become progressively less responsive. Rods are most sensitive to the shorter wavelengths of blue and green, and they impart a strange vividness to the garden’s blue flowers.
However, look at a white shirt during the reddish light of sunset, and you’ll still see it in its “true” color—white, not red. Our eyes are constantly comparing an object against its surroundings. They therefore observe the effect of a shift in the color of illuminating on both, and adjust accordingly.
The eyes can distinguish several million graduations of light and shade of color. Each waking second they flash tens of millions of pieces of information to the brain, which weaves them incessantly into a picture of the world around us.
Yet all this is done at the back of each eye by a fabric of sensors, called the retina, about as wide and as thick as a postage stamp. As the Renaissance inventor and artist Leonardo da Vinci wrote in wonder, “Who would believe that so small a space could contain the images of all the universe?”
1.Visual illusions often take place when the image of reality is ___.
A.matched to six to seven million structures called cones.
B.confused in the body’s sensors of both rods and cones.
C.interpreted in the brain as what must be the case.
D.signaled by about 120 million rods in the eye.
2.The visual sensor that is capable of distinguishing shades of color is called ___.
3.The retina send pulses to the brain ___.
A.in short wavelengths
B.as color pictures
C.by a ganglion cell
D.along the optic nerve.
4.Twenty-four still photographs are made into a continuous moving picture just because ___.
A.the image we see usually stays longer than it actually appears.
B.we see an object in comparison with its surroundings.
C.the eyes catch million pieces of information continuously.
D.rods and cones send messages 20 to 25 times a second.
5.The author’s purpose in writing the passage lies in ___.
A.showing that we sometimes are deceived by our own eyes.
B.informing us about the different functions of the eye organs.
C.regretting that we are too slow in the study of eyes.
D.marveling at the great work done by the retina.
Art is considered by many people to be little more than a decorative means of giving pleasure. This is not always the case, however; at times, art may be seen to have a purely functional side as well. Such could be said of the sandpaintings of the Navaho Indians of the American Southwest; these have a medicinal as well as an artistic purpose.
According to Navaho traditions, one who suffers from either a mental or a physical illness has in come way disturbed or come in contact with the supernatural—perhaps a certain animal, a ghost, or the dead. To counteract this evil contact, the ill person or one of his relatives will employ a medicine man called a “singer” to perform a healing ceremony which will attract a powerful supernatural being.
During the ceremony, which may last from 2 to 9 days, the “singer” will produce a sandpainting on the floor of the Navaho hogan. On the last day of the ceremony, the patient will sit on this sandpainting and the “singer” will rub the ailing parts of the patient’s body with sand from a specific figure in the sandpainting. In this way the patient absorbs the power of that particular supernatural being and becomes strong like it. After the ceremony, the sandpainting is then destroyed and disposed of so its power will not harm anyone.
The art of sandpainting is handed down from old “singer” to their students. The material used are easily found in the areas the Navaho inhabit; brown, red, yellow, and white sandstone, which is pulverized by being crushed between 2 stones much as corns is ground into flour. The “singer” holds a small amount of this sand in his hand and lets it flow between his thumb and fore-finger onto a clean, flat surface on the floor. With a steady hand and great patience, he is thus able to create designs of stylized people, snakes and other creatures that have power in the Navaho belief system. The traditional Navaho does not allow reproduction of sandpaintings, since he believes the supernatural powers that taught him the craft have forbidden this; however, such reproductions can in fact be purchased today in tourist shops in Arizona and New Mexico. These are done by either Navaho Indians or by other people who wish to preserve this craft.
1.The purpose of the passage is to ___.
A.discuss the medical uses of sandpaintings in medieval Europe.
B.study the ways Navaho Indians handed down their painting art.
C.consider how Navaho “singer” treat their ailments with sandpaintings.
D.tell how Navaho Indians apply sandpainting for medical purposes.
2.The purpose of a healing ceremony lies in ___.
A.pleasing the ghosts
B.attracting supernatural powers
C.attracting the ghosts
D.creating a sandpainting
3.The “singer” rubs sand on the patient because ___.
A.the patient receives strength from the sand
B.it has pharmaceutical value
C.it decorates the patient
D.none of the above
4.What is used to produce a sandpainting?
5.Which of the following titles will be best suit the passage?
A.A New Direction for Medical Research
B.The Navaho Indians’ Sandpainting
C.The Process of Sandpainting Creation
D.The Navaho Indians’ Medical History
Is there a standard to evaluate the significance of one's life?It's certainly difficult to offer a definite standard.But generally speaking,we can tell it by judging his attitude towards life and work,making clear whether he is serious about his life.
Throughout the history,the outstanding people were all very serious about their lives.They made best use of every minute of their lives to work and study as much as possible,never wasting their time.None of the working people and the great statesmen and their thinkers were of exception.